METAL FORMING FLUIDS
Metalworking involves drawing and stamping and are otherwise known as Metal Forming Fluids. Depending on the application, these products may be straight oils or water soluble products. For heavy duty applications, an extreme pressure additive package must be incorporated to handle the additional lubricity required.
Water soluble products are used to extract the heat generated during a heavy-duty operations. In this category is also rolling which is the rolling of a metal: steel, aluminum, brass or copper usually. Typically rolling requires a specific formulation match for each operation and we would require a “mill” survey to be filled out before we recommend a product. Please contact your sales engineer to help you if you have such an opportunity.
Semi-synthetics are essentially a hybrid of soluble oils and synthetics. They are defined as a product that generally >20% water and <50% petroleum oil in it. These products create a micro-emulsion having an average particle size <1 µm when diluted with water. They tend to form a “blue” or near translucent emulsion. The performance of the product depends on the formulation and the process, and formulae may have to be optimized for conditions and processes.
ALL METAL SAFE
Soluble oils are basically straight oils with emulsifiers in them such that the oil can be emulsified in water. The oil in water (O/W) emulsion typically resembles milk and the benefits are a high lubricity with the added cooling capacity of water. The average particle size of the oil droplets in the water is >1 µm. With today’s modern high-speed machining processes, tooling can exceed 2,000°F at 200,000 PSI and requires the high heat capacity of water to keep tooling cool and the plated out oil well lubricated. With the addition of water these products should be monitored more closely since tramp oil, bacteria and fungi could thrive depending on conditions.
Straight oils are used “straight from the drum” and are not diluted. These products provide the greatest lubrication, but the poorest cooling. These products are composed of base petroleum oil and additives which may be combination of boundary additives (esters and/or fatty acids) and extreme pressure additives such as sulfur, phosphorous and chlorine.